The femoral vein is the upward continuation of the popliteal vein in the adductor hiatus. Therefore, it starts at the lower end of the adductor canal, ascends in adductor canal, and enters the femoral triangle, where after traversing the intermediate compartment of the femoral sheath it continues as the external iliac vein behind the inguinal ligament medial to the midinguinal point.
- Great saphenous vein (longest tributary).
- Profunda femoris vein.
- Medial and lateral circumflex femoral veins.
- Deep external pudendal vein.
- Direct muscular tributaries.
Puncture and cannulation of femoral vein:
- The femoral vein is the favored vein for intravenous infusions in babies and kids and in patients with peripheral circulatory failure.
- The femoral vein is also utilized for adding a catheter into the right atrial chamber and right ventricle to accumulate blood sample or to record pressure or to get to the pulmonary arteries.
Route to right ventricle:
Femoral vein > external iliac vein > common iliac vein > inferior vena cava > right atrium > right ventricle.