Cramps involve involuntary, painful tetany. The precise cause is unknown, but a cramp seems to result from chemical changes in the muscle, such as ionic imbalances or ATP deficiencies. Sometimes a severe blow to a muscle can produce a cramp.

 

Fibrosis (fi-bro’-sis) is an abnormal increase of connective tissue in a muscle. Usually, it results from connective tissue replacing dead muscle fibers following an injury.

Fibromyalgia (fi-bro-mi-alj-a) is a painful condition of the muscles and joints with no known cause. Once thought to be a mental disorder, this is actually a musculoskeletal disorder that often leads to depression due to the helpless nature of the chronic symptoms.

Muscular dystrophy (dis’-tro -fe) is a general term for a number of inherited muscular disorders that are characterized by the progressive degeneration of muscles. The affected muscles gradually weaken and atrophy, producing a progressive crippling of the patient. There is no specific drug cure, but patients are encouraged to keep active and are given muscle-strengthening exercises.

Strains, or “pulled muscles,” result when a muscle is stretched excessively. This usually occurs when an antagonist has not relaxed quickly enough as an agonist contracts. The hamstrings are a common site of muscle strains. In mild strains, only a few muscle fibers are damaged. In severe strains, both connective and muscle tissues are torn, and muscle function may be severely impaired.

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