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Respiratory System

Factors Influencing Breathing

The respiratory areas of the medulla oblongata and pons are influenced by a number of factors that cause modifications in the rate and depth of breathing. Factors involved in involuntary control are detected by sensory receptors, which forward nerve impulses to the DRG. Higher brain centers involved

The Mechanisms of Gas Exchange in the Lungs and the Body Tissues

Alveolar Gas Exchange During alveolar gas exchange, respiratory gases are exchanged between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries that surround them. Oxygen and carbon dioxide must diffuse through the respiratory membrane, which is composed of the squamous cells forming an alveolar wall

Transport of Respiratory Gases – Oxygen And Carbon Dioxide Transportation By The Blood

The RBCs play a major role in the transport of both oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen Transport In the lungs, oxygen diffuses from the air in alveoli into the blood of surrounding capillaries. Most of the oxygen enters RBCs and combines with the heme portions of hemoglobin

Disorders of The Respiratory System

Inflammatory Disorders Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a group of disorders in which there is a long-term obstruction that reduces airflow to and from the lungs. The two most important COPDs are chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi, and it is characterized

Structure of Mammary Glands and Breasts

Both males and females possess mammary glands. The mammary glands of males and immature females are similar. At puberty, estrogens and progesterone stimulate the development of female mammary glands. Estrogens start breast and mammary gland development, and progesterone stimulates the maturation of the mammary glands so that

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