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Respiratory System

Respiratory System – Structures and Functions

THE PRIMARY ROLE of the respiratory system is to make oxygen available to cells for cellular respiration and to remove carbon dioxide, the main byproduct of that metabolism. The entire process of respiration encompasses five unique and sequential processes: Breathing (pulmonary ventilation)-the movement of air into and

Respiratory Volumes their Capacities and their Significance

Healthy adults average 12 to 15 quiet breathing cycles per minute. A breathing cycle is one inspiration followed by one expiration. The volume of air inhaled and exhaled in a quiet or forceful breathing cycle varies with size, sex, age, and physical condition. The average respiratory volumes

The Neural Control of Breathing And Respiratory Centers

The normal rhythmic cycle of breathing is involuntary- we don’t have to think about it. It continues when we are sleeping or even unconscious. However, we can voluntarily override the normal pattern and take deep breaths and breathe faster or slower if we wish. The centers for

Factors Influencing Breathing

The respiratory areas of the medulla oblongata and pons are influenced by a number of factors that cause modifications in the rate and depth of breathing. Factors involved in involuntary control are detected by sensory receptors, which forward nerve impulses to the DRG. Higher brain centers involved

The Mechanisms of Gas Exchange in the Lungs and the Body Tissues

Alveolar Gas Exchange During alveolar gas exchange, respiratory gases are exchanged between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the capillaries that surround them. Oxygen and carbon dioxide must diffuse through the respiratory membrane, which is composed of the squamous cells forming an alveolar wall

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