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8 08, 2018

Divisions of The Nervous System

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:58:48+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Nervous system, Physiology|0 Comments

Although the nervous system functions as a coordinated whole, it is divided into anatomical and functional divisions as an aid in understanding this complex organ system. Anatomical Divisions The nervous system has two major anatomical divisions. The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is the body's neural integration [...]

8 08, 2018

Sensory Receptors involved in Static Equilibrium and Dynamic Equilibrium

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:18:54+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Nervous system, Physiology|0 Comments

Several types of sensory receptors provide information to the brain for the maintenance of equilibrium. The eyes and proprioceptors in joints, tendons, and muscles are important in informing the brain about equilibrium and the position and movement of body parts. However, unique receptors in the internal ear are crucial in monitoring two types of equilibrium. [...]

8 08, 2018

Nervous Tissue

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:00:28+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Nervous system, Physiology|0 Comments

The nervous system consists of organs composed primarily of nervous tissue supported and protected by connective tissues. There are two types of cells that compose nervous tissue: neurons and neuroglia. Neurons Neurons, or nerve cells, are the structural and functional units of the nervous system. They are delicate cells that are specialized to generate and [...]

8 08, 2018

The Structure of the Eye and the Functions of these Accessory Structures.

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:22:20+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Nervous system, Physiology|0 Comments

Vision is one of the most important senses supplying information to the brain. The sensory receptors for light stimuli are located within the eyes (or eyeballs), the organs of vision. The eyes are located within the orbits, where they are protected by seven skull bones Connective tissues provide support and protective cushioning for the eyes. [...]

8 08, 2018

What Is The Mechanism of Synaptic Transmission?

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:01:50+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Nervous system, Physiology|0 Comments

A synapse is a junction of an axon with either another neuron or an effector cell. At a synapse, the terminal bouton of the presynaptic neuron fits into a small depression on the postsynaptic neuron's dendrite or cell body or on a cell within a muscle, a gland, or adipose tissue. There is a tiny [...]

8 08, 2018

Mouth and Esophageal Motility

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T08:52:24+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Gastrointestinal System, Nervous system, Physiology|0 Comments

Mastication, or chewing, mixes food with salivary mucus. This action subdivides food and exposes ingested starch to salivary amylase to begin the digestive process. Mastication is not essential for normal GI function but facilitates the process. Swallowing propels food from the mouth into the esophagus. The initiation of swallowing is voluntary, but once started, the [...]

8 08, 2018

Brainstem – Midbrain and Medulla Oblongata

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:06:57+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Nervous system, Physiology|0 Comments

The brainstem is the stalklike portion of the brain that joins higher brain centers to the spinal cord. It contains several nuclei that are surrounded by white matter. Ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) axons between higher brain centers and the spinal cord pass through the brainstem. The components of the brainstem include the midbrain, pons, [...]

8 08, 2018

Gastric Motility

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T08:53:45+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Gastrointestinal System, Nervous system, Physiology|0 Comments

Stomach The stomach is anatomically and functionally divided into the fundus, body, and antrum. The fundus and body are highly distensible and act as reservoir for the ingested meal. A 1.5 L volume increase causes only a small increase in pressure in the lumen of the stomach. The esophageal swallowing reflex promotes release of NO [...]

8 08, 2018

Ventricles And Cerebrospinal Fluid

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:09:01+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Nervous system, Physiology|0 Comments

There are four interconnecting ventricles, or cavities, within the brain. Each ventricle is lined by ependymal cells and is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The largest ventricles are the two lateral ventricles (first and second ventricles), which are located within the cerebral hemispheres. The ihird ventricle is a narrow space that lies on the midline [...]

8 08, 2018

Small Intestinal Motility

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T08:55:11+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Gastrointestinal System, Nervous system, Physiology|0 Comments

The small intestine is divided into duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, with the duodenum and jejunum being the major site of digestion and absorption. Chyme takes 2 to 4 hours to move through the 5 m of the small intestine. Segmentation, which mixes intestinal contents and enhances contact of the chyme with the intestinal microvilli, is [...]