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Nervous system

The Structure of the Eye and the Functions of these Accessory Structures.

Vision is one of the most important senses supplying information to the brain. The sensory receptors for light stimuli are located within the eyes (or eyeballs), the organs of vision. The eyes are located within the orbits, where they are protected by seven skull bones Connective tissues

Gastric Motility

Stomach The stomach is anatomically and functionally divided into the fundus, body, and antrum. The fundus and body are highly distensible and act as reservoir for the ingested meal. A 1.5 L volume increase causes only a small increase in pressure in the lumen of the stomach.

Mouth and Esophageal Motility

Mastication, or chewing, mixes food with salivary mucus. This action subdivides food and exposes ingested starch to salivary amylase to begin the digestive process. Mastication is not essential for normal GI function but facilitates the process. Swallowing propels food from the mouth into the esophagus. The initiation

Small Intestinal Motility

The small intestine is divided into duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, with the duodenum and jejunum being the major site of digestion and absorption. Chyme takes 2 to 4 hours to move through the 5 m of the small intestine. Segmentation, which mixes intestinal contents and enhances contact

Sensory Receptors involved in Static Equilibrium and Dynamic Equilibrium

Several types of sensory receptors provide information to the brain for the maintenance of equilibrium. The eyes and proprioceptors in joints, tendons, and muscles are important in informing the brain about equilibrium and the position and movement of body parts. However, unique receptors in the internal ear

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