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8 08, 2018

Lumbar Vertebrae

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:15:31+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Bones and Cartilages, Pelvis|0 Comments

Lumbar Vertebrae are the five individual cylindrical bones that form the shape of the spine in the lower back.The components contained by the lumbar vertebrae are same as the thoracic vertebrae but to carry the greater load, these components are gigantic. There are 5 lumbar vertebrae out of which first 4 (L1 to L4) are [...]

8 08, 2018

Obturator Artery

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-09-11T05:23:54+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Arteries, Pelvis|0 Comments

The Obturator Artery originates from the anterior section of internal iliac artery in the pelvis. Through the obturator canal, it enters the adductor compartment of thigh. It divides into the medial and the lateral branches just outside the obturator canal. The acetabular branch that enters the acetabulum through the gap between acetabular notch and transverse [...]

8 08, 2018

Cauda Equina

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-09-12T07:42:44+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Nerves, Pelvis|0 Comments

Cauda equina is the package of nerves comprised of the lumbar, sacral as well as coccygeal nerve roots coming from L2 to S5 creates cauda like a horse tail. Generally it starts at the level of L1/L2 disc space distal towards the conus medullaris. The spinal cord terminates at the lower border of the first [...]

8 08, 2018

Psoas Minor

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:04:13+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Muscles, Pelvis|0 Comments

Psoas Minor is present in nearly 50% of the population. Whenever existent, it travels downward opposite psoas major. It bears a similarity to the plantaris muscle of the leg in form and shape, and is limited in the abdomen region. Psoas Minor Origin It arises from the side of the intervertebral disc in [...]

8 08, 2018


By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T08:37:48+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Organs, Pelvis|0 Comments

The Appendix (or Vermiform Appendix)  is a narrow worm-like diverticulum, about 2 cm below the ileocaecal junction. It originates from the posteromedial wall of the caecum. Measurements The length of the appendix varies from 2 to 20 cm (with an average of 9 cm). The typical width is all about 5 mm. With age, there are [...]

8 08, 2018

Anococcygeal Ligament

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:00:51+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Joints and Ligaments, Pelvis|0 Comments

The anococcygeal ligament is a fibroelastic construct connective tissue coat of the anorcctum to the coccyx and presacral fascia and extending via the external anal sphincter. Layers of Anococcygeal Ligament Anococcygeal Ligament is situated between the coccyx and anorectal boundary, it is a complicated musculotendinous structure. Anococcygeal Ligament has 3 layers: Superior layer: formed by the [...]

8 08, 2018

Superior Gluteal Artery

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:22:04+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Arteries, Pelvis|0 Comments

The superior gluteal artery emerges via the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery inside the pelvic cavity. It exits the pelvic cavity along with the superior gluteal nerve via the greater sciatic foramen over the piriformis muscle. Inside the gluteal region, it splits in a superficial branch as well as a deep branch: The [...]

8 08, 2018


By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:04:48+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Organs, Pelvis|0 Comments

Prostate is a fibromuscular glandular organ encompassing the prostatic urethra. It is pyramidal-shaped. The various secretions of the prostate gland comprise of acid phosphatase, fibrinolysin, citric acid, amylase, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and prostaglandins. Most of the seminal fluid is created by its secretions. The female homologue of prostatic urethra is paraurethral glands (of Skene). [...]

8 08, 2018

Anal Sphincter (External)

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:32:33+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Muscles, Pelvis|0 Comments

The external anal sphincter, which covers the anal canal, is composed of three portions deep, superficial, along with subcutaneous throughout the canal from superior to inferior organized sequentially and is created by skeletal muscle. Anal Sphincter Parts Deep Part The deep part circles around the upper portion of the anal canal and mixes [...]

8 08, 2018

Coccygeus (Ischiococcygeus)

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:24:29+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Muscles, Pelvis|0 Comments

The coccygeus is a small triangle shaped muscle, which is located behind the levator ani muscle. The two coccygeus muscles extend over the surface of the sacrospinous ligaments and they complete the posterior part of the pelvic diaphragm together. Coccygeus (Ischiococcygeus) Origin It emerges through the pelvic surface of ischial spine [...]