The superior gluteal nerve originates in the pelvis and supplies the gluteus medius, the gluteus minimus and the tensor fasciae latae muscle. Nerve roots of the sacral plexus forms the superior gluteal nerve.
The superior gluteal nerve, created by divisions via the dorsal branches of L4 to SI, exits the pelvic cavity via the greater sciatic foramen superior to the piriformis muscle and supplies muscles in the gluteal region, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, and tensor fasciae latae (tensor of fascia lata) muscles.
The superior gluteal nerve emerges via the sacral plexus in the pelvis and is created by the dorsal divisions of the ventral rami of L4, L5; SI. It goes into the gluteal region via the greater sciatic notch above the piriformis in company with superior gluteal artery. At this site it turns up and forward, goes in between the gluteus medius and the minimus, and supplies each of them. It then comes out by entering in between the anterior borders of these muscles and supplies the tensor fasciae latae via its deep side. It likewise supplies an articular branch to the hip joint.
The superior gluteal nerve ramifies in between the gluteal minimus and maximus muscles and disperses divisions to each of these muscles. The superior gluteal nerve ends by piercing and innervating the tensor fasciae latae muscle.
- Superior gluteal nerve injury leads to particular motor loss that manifests as a disabling gluteus medius limp more typically referred to as a Trendelenburg or gluteal gait.
- Weak point of the gluteus medius muscle moves the center of gravity to the non-affected limb producing the gait. The Trendelenburg’s indication has the ability to identify a unilateral impaired gluteus medius muscle. Two-sided lesions to the superior gluteal nerve might lead to a waddling gait.
- Superior gluteal nerve confinement can likewise happen as a result of compression by the anterosuperior tendinous fibers of the piriformis muscle and might lead to claudication type back pain, weak point of abduction of the impacted hip and inflammation of the greater sciatic notch.