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Urinary And Renal System: Anatomy, Physiology, Structure and Function

By | 2018-07-11T06:08:31+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Anatomy, Body Systems, Physiology, Renal System|

The renal system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidney contains the nephron, the functional unit of the renal system. The nephron consists of the glomerular and peritubular capillaries and the associated tubular segments. The glomerular tuft (glomerulus) contains capillaries and the beginning of the tubule system, Bowman's capsule. Tubule fluid, an [...]

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

By | 2018-07-11T06:10:53+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology, Renal System|

  The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs 65% of the filtered water, Na+, Cl-, and K+. The epithelia of the proximal tubule have "leaky" tight junctions and can maintain only a small transepithelial membrane potential. Most of the energy consumed by the proximal tubule is tied to Na+ reabsorption. On the apical surface, Na+ enters the [...]

Loop of Henle

By | 2018-07-11T06:11:26+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology, Renal System|

The loop of Henle carries filtrate from the proximal tubule to the renal medulla and back to the renal cortex. There are three functional divisions: the thin descending limb, thin ascending limb, and thick ascending limb. The thin descending limb of the loop of Henle has leaky "tight" junctions. This allows water to leave by [...]

Urinary Concentration and Dilution

By | 2018-07-11T06:11:48+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology, Renal System|

The balance of water and solute reabsorption rates determines urine osmolarity. Water reabsorption is driven by an osmotic gradient, particularly evident as filtrate passes through tubule segments of the hypertonic renal medulla. Reabsorption and secretion characteristics are specific for each solute and can result from both passive (diffusion) and active transport. Renal cortex interstitial fluid [...]

Urinary Acid-Base Regulation

By | 2018-07-11T06:03:43+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology, Renal System|

Renal acid/base excretion complements pulmonary CO2 elimination to regulate body acid-base balance. Normally, there is a net acid production by the body, and urine pH is slightly acidic to keep the body in pH balance. Acids excreted in the urine include H+, ammonium, phosphate, and sulfate. When the urine pH becomes alkaline, the urinary base [...]

Tubuloglomerular Feedback and Glomerulotubular Balance

By | 2018-07-11T06:05:03+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology, Renal System|

Intrarenal control of renal function is by tubuloglomerular feedback and by glomerulotubular balance. In tubu- loglomerular feedback, Na/Cl delivery to the distal tubule serves as a signal to provide negative feedback control of GFR. In glomerulotubular balance, filtration at the glomerulus alters the oncotic pressure of the plasma that exits the glomerulus and flows into [...]

The Structure and Blood Supply of the Kidney and Functions of Nephron

By | 2018-07-11T06:05:23+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology, Renal System|

The kidneys are reddish brown, bean-shaped organs located bilateral to the vertebral column in the retroperitoneal space posterior to the abdominal cavity. They lie posterior to the parietal peritoneum, which covers their anterior surfaces. The kidneys are located between the levels of the twelfth thoracic vertebra and the third lumbar vertebra and are partially protected [...]

Urine Formation, Components, Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion

By | 2018-07-11T06:06:07+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology, Renal System|

The formation of urine is a homeostatic mechanism that maintains the composition and volume of blood plasma within normal limits. In the production of urine, nephrons perform three basic functions: (1) They regulate the con centration of solutes, such as nutrients and ions, in blood plasma, and this also regulates blood pH. (2) They regulate [...]

Excretion of Urine and Control of Micturition – Ureters, Urinary Bladder and Urethra

By | 2018-07-11T06:06:27+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology, Renal System|

The term urinary tract refers collectively to the renal pelvis, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. These structures function to carry urine from the kidneys to the external environment. Urine passes from the renal pelvis into the ureter and is carried by peristalsis to the urinary bladder. Urine is voided from the urinary [...]

Disorders of The Urinary System

By | 2018-07-11T06:07:44+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology, Renal System|

Inflammatory Disorders Cystitis is the inflammation of the urinary bladder. It is often caused by bacterial infection. Females are more prone to cystitis because their shorter urethra makes it easier for bacteria to reach the urinary bladder. Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of a kidney involving the glomeruli. It may be caused by bacteria or bacterial [...]