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Renal System

Urine Formation, Components, Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion

The formation of urine is a homeostatic mechanism that maintains the composition and volume of blood plasma within normal limits. In the production of urine, nephrons perform three basic functions: (1) They regulate the con centration of solutes, such as nutrients and ions, in blood plasma, and

Excretion of Urine and Control of Micturition – Ureters, Urinary Bladder and Urethra

The term urinary tract refers collectively to the renal pelvis, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. These structures function to carry urine from the kidneys to the external environment. Urine passes from the renal pelvis into the ureter and is carried by peristalsis to the

Disorders of The Urinary System

Inflammatory Disorders Cystitis is the inflammation of the urinary bladder. It is often caused by bacterial infection. Females are more prone to cystitis because their shorter urethra makes it easier for bacteria to reach the urinary bladder. Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of a kidney involving the glomeruli.

Renin-Angiotensin System And Atrial Natriuretic Peptides

Angiotensin and atrial natriuretic peptides generally act to oppose each other. Angiotensin II has strong acute vascular effects and is an important mediator of renal Na+ retention. Atrial natriuretic peptides are released from the atria of the heart by distention and enhance renal Na+ excretion. Angiotensin works

Urinary And Renal System: Anatomy, Physiology, Structure and Function

The renal system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidney contains the nephron, the functional unit of the renal system. The nephron consists of the glomerular and peritubular capillaries and the associated tubular segments. The glomerular tuft (glomerulus) contains capillaries and the beginning of

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