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8 08, 2018

Urinary Concentration and Dilution

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:09:46+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Physiology, Renal System|0 Comments

The balance of water and solute reabsorption rates determines urine osmolarity. Water reabsorption is driven by an osmotic gradient, particularly evident as filtrate passes through tubule segments of the hypertonic renal medulla. Reabsorption and secretion characteristics are specific for each solute and can result from both passive (diffusion) and active transport. Renal cortex interstitial fluid [...]

8 08, 2018

Urinary Acid-Base Regulation

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:11:47+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Physiology, Renal System|0 Comments

Renal acid/base excretion complements pulmonary CO2 elimination to regulate body acid-base balance. Normally, there is a net acid production by the body, and urine pH is slightly acidic to keep the body in pH balance. Acids excreted in the urine include H+, ammonium, phosphate, and sulfate. When the urine pH becomes alkaline, the urinary base [...]

8 08, 2018

Tubuloglomerular Feedback and Glomerulotubular Balance

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:13:08+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Physiology, Renal System|0 Comments

Intrarenal control of renal function is by tubuloglomerular feedback and by glomerulotubular balance. In tubu- loglomerular feedback, Na/Cl delivery to the distal tubule serves as a signal to provide negative feedback control of GFR. In glomerulotubular balance, filtration at the glomerulus alters the oncotic pressure of the plasma that exits the glomerulus and flows into [...]

8 08, 2018

The Structure and Blood Supply of the Kidney and Functions of Nephron

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:14:57+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Physiology, Renal System|0 Comments

The kidneys are reddish brown, bean-shaped organs located bilateral to the vertebral column in the retroperitoneal space posterior to the abdominal cavity. They lie posterior to the parietal peritoneum, which covers their anterior surfaces. The kidneys are located between the levels of the twelfth thoracic vertebra and the third lumbar vertebra and are partially protected [...]

8 08, 2018

Urine Formation, Components, Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:16:40+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Physiology, Renal System|0 Comments

The formation of urine is a homeostatic mechanism that maintains the composition and volume of blood plasma within normal limits. In the production of urine, nephrons perform three basic functions: (1) They regulate the con centration of solutes, such as nutrients and ions, in blood plasma, and this also regulates blood pH. (2) They regulate [...]

8 08, 2018

Excretion of Urine and Control of Micturition – Ureters, Urinary Bladder and Urethra

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:18:20+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Physiology, Renal System|0 Comments

The term urinary tract refers collectively to the renal pelvis, the ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. These structures function to carry urine from the kidneys to the external environment. Urine passes from the renal pelvis into the ureter and is carried by peristalsis to the urinary bladder. Urine is voided from the urinary [...]

8 08, 2018

Disorders of The Urinary System

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:23:39+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Physiology, Renal System|0 Comments

Inflammatory Disorders Cystitis is the inflammation of the urinary bladder. It is often caused by bacterial infection. Females are more prone to cystitis because their shorter urethra makes it easier for bacteria to reach the urinary bladder. Glomerulonephritis is the inflammation of a kidney involving the glomeruli. It may be caused by bacteria or bacterial [...]

8 08, 2018

Renin-Angiotensin System And Atrial Natriuretic Peptides

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:03:56+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Physiology, Renal System|0 Comments

Angiotensin and atrial natriuretic peptides generally act to oppose each other. Angiotensin II has strong acute vascular effects and is an important mediator of renal Na+ retention. Atrial natriuretic peptides are released from the atria of the heart by distention and enhance renal Na+ excretion. Angiotensin works through the cAMP second messenger, and atrial natriuretic [...]

8 08, 2018

Urinary And Renal System: Anatomy, Physiology, Structure and Function

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:03:06+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Body Systems, Physiology, Renal System|0 Comments

The renal system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidney contains the nephron, the functional unit of the renal system. The nephron consists of the glomerular and peritubular capillaries and the associated tubular segments. The glomerular tuft (glomerulus) contains capillaries and the beginning of the tubule system, Bowman's capsule. Tubule fluid, an [...]

8 08, 2018

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:04:35+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Physiology, Renal System|0 Comments

  The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs 65% of the filtered water, Na+, Cl-, and K+. The epithelia of the proximal tubule have "leaky" tight junctions and can maintain only a small transepithelial membrane potential. Most of the energy consumed by the proximal tubule is tied to Na+ reabsorption. On the apical surface, Na+ enters the [...]