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Renal System

Renin-Angiotensin System And Atrial Natriuretic Peptides

Angiotensin and atrial natriuretic peptides generally act to oppose each other. Angiotensin II has strong acute vascular effects and is an important mediator of renal Na+ retention. Atrial natriuretic peptides are released from the atria of the heart by distention and enhance renal Na+ excretion. Angiotensin works

Urinary And Renal System: Anatomy, Physiology, Structure and Function

The renal system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidney contains the nephron, the functional unit of the renal system. The nephron consists of the glomerular and peritubular capillaries and the associated tubular segments. The glomerular tuft (glomerulus) contains capillaries and the beginning of

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

  The proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs 65% of the filtered water, Na+, Cl–, and K+. The epithelia of the proximal tubule have “leaky” tight junctions and can maintain only a small transepithelial membrane potential. Most of the energy consumed by the proximal tubule is tied to Na+

Loop of Henle

The loop of Henle carries filtrate from the proximal tubule to the renal medulla and back to the renal cortex. There are three functional divisions: the thin descending limb, thin ascending limb, and thick ascending limb. The thin descending limb of the loop of Henle has leaky

Urinary Concentration and Dilution

The balance of water and solute reabsorption rates determines urine osmolarity. Water reabsorption is driven by an osmotic gradient, particularly evident as filtrate passes through tubule segments of the hypertonic renal medulla. Reabsorption and secretion characteristics are specific for each solute and can result from both passive

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