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Renal System

Urinary Concentration and Dilution

The balance of water and solute reabsorption rates determines urine osmolarity. Water reabsorption is driven by an osmotic gradient, particularly evident as filtrate passes through tubule segments of the hypertonic renal medulla. Reabsorption and secretion characteristics are specific for each solute and can result from both passive

Urinary Acid-Base Regulation

Renal acid/base excretion complements pulmonary CO2 elimination to regulate body acid-base balance. Normally, there is a net acid production by the body, and urine pH is slightly acidic to keep the body in pH balance. Acids excreted in the urine include H+, ammonium, phosphate, and sulfate. When

Tubuloglomerular Feedback and Glomerulotubular Balance

Intrarenal control of renal function is by tubuloglomerular feedback and by glomerulotubular balance. In tubu- loglomerular feedback, Na/Cl delivery to the distal tubule serves as a signal to provide negative feedback control of GFR. In glomerulotubular balance, filtration at the glomerulus alters the oncotic pressure of the

The Structure and Blood Supply of the Kidney and Functions of Nephron

The kidneys are reddish brown, bean-shaped organs located bilateral to the vertebral column in the retroperitoneal space posterior to the abdominal cavity. They lie posterior to the parietal peritoneum, which covers their anterior surfaces. The kidneys are located between the levels of the twelfth thoracic vertebra and

Urine Formation, Components, Glomerular Filtration, Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion

The formation of urine is a homeostatic mechanism that maintains the composition and volume of blood plasma within normal limits. In the production of urine, nephrons perform three basic functions: (1) They regulate the con centration of solutes, such as nutrients and ions, in blood plasma, and

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