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23 10, 2018


By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-10-25T10:51:07+00:00 October 23rd, 2018|Anatomy, Organs, Thorax|0 Comments

The epiglottis is a leaf-shaped flexible flap of cartilage located behind the tongue at the end of the larynx. One of the main function of the epiglottis is to protect the body from chocking by sealing the windpipe during eating, so the food is inhaled accidentally. Epiglottis Structure Epiglottis is a leaf like [...]

18 09, 2018

Teres Major

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-09-21T08:24:54+00:00 September 18th, 2018|Anatomy, Muscles, Thorax|0 Comments

Teres major is a thick and oval-shaped muscle that lies in the upper arm. Although having similar names, Teres major is different in terms of actions and innervation when compared to the teres minor. It’s main function is to facilitate medial rotation of the arm and it also helps in maintaining static posture and arm-swinging. [...]

8 08, 2018

Interchondral Joints and Manubriosternal Joint

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:43:09+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Joints and Ligaments, Thorax|0 Comments

Manubriosternal Joint Interchondral Joints 7th-9th costal cartilages enters into contact with 1 another and articulate with every other by number of small synovial joints in Interchondral joint. At some instances, they’re also connected by ligaments. 9th and 10th costal cartilages union is usually ligamentous. Manubriosternal Joint The manubriosternal joint is composed [...]

8 08, 2018

Valves of the Heart – Atrioventricular and Semilunar Valves

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:13:30+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

The Valves of the Heart are present in 2 pairs: (a) a pair of atrioventricular valves, and (b) a pair of semilunar valves. The valves prevent regurgitation of the blood. Atrioventricular Valves The left and right atria communicate with the left and right ventricles via left and right atrioventricular orifices, respectively. The left and right [...]

8 08, 2018

Anterior Intercostal Arteries

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:45:27+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Arteries, Thorax|0 Comments

The anterior intercostal arteries arise as lateral divisions from the internal thoracic arteries either directly or indirectly. Anterior intercostal arteries which circulate the upper six intercostal spaces emerge as lateral branches from the internal thoracic artery, while those circulating towards the lower spaces arise via the musculophrenic artery.   Anterior Intercostal Artries Branches [...]

8 08, 2018

Suprapleural Membrane (Sibson’s fascia)

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:01:01+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Thorax|0 Comments

The suprapleural membrane, also known as Sibson fascia is a strong fascial connective tissue layer above the superior thoracic inlet on each side, placed on top of the tips of the lungs. Suprapleural Membrane It can be said to be an extension of the tendinous attachment of the scalenus minimus muscle. It slopes [...]

8 08, 2018

Recesses of the Pleura

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:09:04+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Thorax|0 Comments

Generally, a thin film of serous fluid fills up the potential space which is the space between the parietal and visceral pleura. Enlargement of the space between Parietal and visceral pleura takes place in the regions of pleural reflection on to the diaphragm and mediastinum. Pleural Recesses is the name that is given to these [...]

8 08, 2018

Thoracic Sympathetic Trunk – Course, Relations, Ganglia and Its Branches

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-09-12T06:46:09+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Nerves, Thorax|0 Comments

Thoracic Sympathetic Trunk is a ganglionated chain, situated on each side of the vertebral column. In the thoracic inlet, it's superiorly continuous with the cervical sympathetic chain and with the lumbar sympathetic chain inferiorly after passing behind the medial arcuate ligament of the diaphragm. Course And Relations The sympathetic chain descends in front of the [...]

8 08, 2018

Arteries of Thorax

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:24:17+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Arteries, Thorax|0 Comments

Thoracic Artery The two internal thoracic arteries can be differentiated as left and right. One on the either side of sternum and is located deep towards the anterior chest wall. The initial part of the subclavian artery (lower surface) is the source of the internal thoracic artery situated around 2.5 cm over the medial end of the clavicle, [...]

8 08, 2018

The Ribs

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T11:20:58+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Bones and Cartilages, Thorax|0 Comments

The ribs stretches posteriorly from thoracic vertebrae to the anterior lateral edges of the sternum. They are ribbon like, elastic bony arches and flat in shape. Coastal cartilages are joined to the anterior ends. The costal cartilage and ribs together makes the costa. Also the large part of the thoracic skeleton is created by the [...]