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Thorax

Epiglottis

The epiglottis is a leaf-shaped flexible flap of cartilage located behind the tongue at the end of the larynx. One of the main function of the epiglottis is to protect the body from chocking by sealing the windpipe during eating, so the food is inhaled accidentally. Structure

Teres Major

Teres major is a thick and oval-shaped muscle that lies in the upper arm. Although having similar names, Teres major is different in terms of actions and innervation when compared to the teres minor. It’s main function is to facilitate medial rotation of the arm and it

Surface Landmarks of the Thoracic wall

Bony Landmarks The bony landmarks of the thoracic wall are as follows: 1. Suprasternal notch (jugular notch): Just above the superior border of the manubrium sterni between the proximal medial ends of both clavicles is exactly where the jugular notch is found. At the level of lower border

Surface Markings of Lungs

Margins The pleura margins roughly coincide with those of the lung margins, with the exception of at the following points: Lower Border The lower border of every lung is 2 – rib spaces higher than the lower border of the pleura. Therefore, it is located along the

Surface Markings of The Cardiac Valves and Auscultatory Regions

The sounds produced by closure of valves of the heart are best heard not directly over the location of valve but at regions situated some distance far from the valve in the direction of blood flow via them. The pulmonary, aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valves are located

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