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Physiology

Golgi Apparatus and Its Functions

The Golgi apparatus is a packaging center Golgi apparatus or Golgi body or Golgi complex is a membrane-bound organelle, associated with the processing of proteins It exists in all the cells other than red blood cells It is called after the originator Camillo Golgi. Typically, each cell

DNA Structure and Function

DNA is a long threadlike molecule with a uniform diameter of 2 nm, although its length varies greatly from the smallest to the largest chromosomes. Most human cells have 46 molecules of DNA totaling 2 m in length. This makes the average DNA molecule about 43 mm

Cell-To-Cell Communication

Normally the cell membrane isolates a cell from the adjacent tissue. As a consequence, any cell-to-cell message must first transit the cell membrane. One exception to that arrangement is a feature found in cardiac and smooth muscle cells: the gap junction. A gap junction is a direct

Disorders of The Skeletal System, Bones and Joints

Common disorders of the skeletal system may be categorised as disorders of bones or disorders of joints. Orthopaedics (or-tho-pe-diks) is the branch of medicine that specialises in treating diseases and abnormalities of the skeletal system.   Disorders of Bones Fractures are broken bones. Fractures are the most

Disorders of The Nervous System – Inflammatory and Non Inflammatory

Inflammatory Disorders Meningitis (men-in-ji ‘-tis) results from a bacterial, fungal, or viral infection of the meninges. Bacterial meningitis cases are the most serious, with about 20% being fatal. If the brain is also involved, the disease is called encephalitis. Some viruses causing encephalitis are transmitted by bites

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