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Vasa Vasorum

By | 2018-02-14T09:42:13+00:00 February 9th, 2018|Physiology|

The Vasa vasorum is found in large arteries as well as veins like the aorta along with its branches. 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography has shown that there are three different types of Vasa vasorum in human arteries via various vascular beds: Vasa vasorum internae emerge directly from the main lumen of the artery and then branch [...]

Arachnoid Villi and Arachnoid Granulations

By | 2018-02-14T09:44:02+00:00 February 9th, 2018|Physiology|

Arachnoid villi originate from the surface of arachnoid mater and are thin finger-like projections. Human arachnoid villi have four parts: Fibrous capsule Arachnoid cell layer Cap cell cluster Central core They eventually perforate dura in order to project within the dural venous sinuses, before that they move the dura before them. Specific mesothelial cells that [...]

Sensory – Motor Functions and Neurons

By | 2018-02-01T06:31:23+00:00 January 25th, 2018|Physiology|

Neurons come in numerous sizes. For instance, a single sensory neuron from your fingertip has an axon that spreads out the length of your arm, while neurons within the brain may extend just a couple of millimeters. They also have different shapes depending upon their functions. Motor neurons that regulate muscle contractions have a cell [...]

The Systemic Circulation

By | 2018-02-01T06:33:11+00:00 January 8th, 2018|Physiology|

Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which: Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart via the aorta from the left ventricle towards the rest of the body. Brings back deoxygenated blood towards the heart. The systemic circuit, which contains about 84 percent of the total blood volume at any given movement, starts [...]

Pulmonary Circuit

By | 2018-02-01T06:38:11+00:00 January 8th, 2018|Physiology|

The cardiovascular system is categorized into the pulmonary circuit as well as the systemic circuit. The blood among the heart and the lungs is transported by pulmonary circuit, which is made up of arteries and veins. The circuit starts at the right ventricle and terminates at the left atrium. The arteries of the systemic circuit [...]


By | 2017-06-25T10:44:54+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology|

The meninges consist of three membranes arranged in layers. From deepest to most superficial they are the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater. The pia mater is the very thin, deepest membrane. It tightly envelops both the brain and the spinal cord and penetrates into each groove and depression. It contains many blood vessels [...]

The Life History of A Keratinocyte

By | 2017-06-02T17:55:13+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology|

Dead cells constantly flake off the skin surface. They float around as tiny white specks in the air, settling on household surfaces and forming much of the house dust that accumulates there. Because we constantly lose these epidermal cells, they must be continually replaced. Keratinocytes are produced deep in the epidermis by the mitosis of [...]

Structure of Skeletal Muscle

By | 2017-06-12T08:36:47+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology|

Skeletal muscles are the organs of the muscular system. They are called skeletal muscles because most of them are attached to bones. A skeletal muscle is composed mainly of skeletal muscle tissue bound together and electrically insulated by connective tissue layers. Individual skeletal muscle cells, called muscle fibers due to their long skinny shape, are [...]

Brainstem – Midbrain and Medulla Oblongata

By | 2017-08-08T17:23:23+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology|

The brainstem is the stalklike portion of the brain that joins higher brain centers to the spinal cord. It contains several nuclei that are surrounded by white matter. Ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) axons between higher brain centers and the spinal cord pass through the brainstem. The components of the brainstem include the midbrain, pons, [...]

Thermoregulation -Temperature Regulation In Skin – Hypothermia And Hyperthermia

By | 2017-06-24T11:12:07+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Physiology|

Body temperature is maintained at 37°C as a result of balance between heat generation and heat loss processes. This balance involves autonomic nervous system, metabolism, and behavioral responses. According to a 1992 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, humans are able to maintain an average healthy body temperature near 36.8°C (98.2°F), [...]