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Homeostasis Regulation – Positive and Negative Feedback Mechanism

Homeostasis, a term presented by W. B. Cannon, describes the mechanism by which the constancy of the internal environment is maintained and ensured Homeostasis is the maintenance of a fairly steady internal environment by self-regulating physiological processes Homeostasis keeps body temperature and the structure of blood and

Vesicular Transport – Endocytosis and Exocytosis

Vesicular transport mechanisms are associated with the transport of macromolecules such as big protein molecules which can neither travel through the membrane by diffusion nor by active transport mechanisms The vesicular transport mechanisms consist of endocytosis, exocytosis and transcytosis. Endocytosis Endocytosis is the process where the substance

Stem Cells Types and Advantages

Stem cells are the primary cells capable of reforming themselves through mitotic division and differentiating into specialized cells. These cells serve as repair system of the body and are present in all multicellular organisms.   Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are of two types: Embryonic stem

Ossification – Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification and Their Functions

The process of bone formation is called ossification (os-i-fi-ka’-shun). It begins during the sixth or seventh week of embryonic development. Bones are formed by the replacement of existing connective tissues with bone. There are two types of bone formation: intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification. In both types


The meninges consist of three membranes arranged in layers. From deepest to most superficial they are the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater. The pia mater is the very thin, deepest membrane. It tightly envelops both the brain and the spinal cord and penetrates into each

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