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Alimentary Canal: Characteristics and Layers Composing, it’s Wall and their Functions.

By | 2018-07-11T06:04:29+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Gastrointestinal System, Physiology|

The alimentary canal is a muscular tube about 5 m (20 ft) in length that extends from the esophagus to the anus. Various portions of the alimentary canal are specialized to perform different digestive functions. The hollow space within the alimentary canal through which food passes is called the lumen. Structure of The Wall The [...]

The Location and Function of Pharynx and Esophagus

By | 2018-07-11T06:05:32+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Gastrointestinal System, Physiology|

The pharynx (fayr'-inks) is the passageway that connects the nasal and oral cavities with the larynx and esophagus. It is part of both the respiratory and the digestive systems. Its digestive function is the transport of food from the mouth to the esophagus during swallowing. The swallowing reflex is activated when food is pushed into [...]

Structure and Functions of the Stomach and Control of Gastric Secretions

By | 2018-07-11T06:06:18+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Gastrointestinal System, Physiology|

The J-shaped stomach is a pouchlike portion of the alimentary canal. It lies just inferior to the diaphragm in the left upper quadrant of the abdominopelvic cavity. The basic functions of the stomach are temporary storage of food, mixing food with gastric juice, and starting the chemical digestion of proteins. Structure The stomach may be [...]

Sources and Uses of Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Vitamins, And Major Minerals

By | 2018-07-11T06:07:15+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Gastrointestinal System, Physiology|

Nutrients are chemicals in foods that provide energy for powering life processes; chemicals aiding or enabling life processes; or materials to construct molecules for the normal development, growth, and maintenance of the body. There are six groups of nutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water. All six groups provide raw materials for constructing new [...]

Disorders of The Digestive System

By | 2018-07-11T06:07:34+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Gastrointestinal System, Physiology|

Inflammatory Disorders Appendicitis is an acute inflammation of the appendix. First symptoms include referred pain in the umbilical region and nausea. Later, pain is localized in the right lower quadrant of the abdominal wall. Surgical removal of the appendix is the standard treatment. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders that cause [...]

Lymphoid Tissues – Locations And Functions of The Tonsils And Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissues

By | 2018-07-11T06:13:33+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Gastrointestinal System, Physiology|

The tonsils and mucosa associated lymphoid tissues are not structurally organs; however, they function as secondary lymphoid organs because they are sites of immune responses. Tonsils Tonsils (ton'-sils) are clusters of lymphoid tissue located just deep to the mucous membrane in the pharynx (fayr- inks), or throat, and oral cavity. Like all lymphoid tissue, they [...]

Gastric Motility

By | 2018-07-11T06:23:59+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Gastrointestinal System, Nervous system, Physiology|

Stomach The stomach is anatomically and functionally divided into the fundus, body, and antrum. The fundus and body are highly distensible and act as reservoir for the ingested meal. A 1.5 L volume increase causes only a small increase in pressure in the lumen of the stomach. The esophageal swallowing reflex promotes release of NO [...]

Colonic Motility

By | 2018-07-11T06:29:19+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Gastrointestinal System, Nervous system, Physiology|

The colon reabsorbs salts and water. About 1500 mL of fluid enters the colon each day, but only 50 to 100 mL of fluid is excreted in feces. Anatomically, the colon is divided into the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, and descending colon. Segmental contraction of the circular smooth muscle divides the colon into numerous [...]