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Cardiovascular System


Hematopoiesis is the synthesis of blood cells. Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow divide and differentiate into erythrocytes, leukocytes, or megakaryocytes. Replication and differentiation are regulated by hormones, cytokines, and growth factors. The aggregate weight of adult bone marrow is 3 kg, comparable in mass

Types of Blood Vessels – Structure And Function of Arteries, Arte¬rioles, Capillaries, Venules, And Veins

There are three basic types of blood vessels: arteries, capillaries, and veins. They form a closed system of tubes that carry blood from the heart to the tissue cells and back to the heart. Comparison of Arteries, Capillaries, And Veins Type of Vessel Function Structure Arteries Carry

Red Blood Cells – Appearance, Normal Concentration Production, Life Span And Destruction

Red blood cells, or erythrocytes are tiny, biconcave discs that are involved in respiratory gas transport throughout the body. The biconcave shape creates maximal surface area of the cell for the diffusion of these gases through the plasma membrane. Mature RBCs lack a nucleus and other organelles,

Mechanism of Blood Circulation – Blood Flow

Blood circulates because of differences in blood pressure. Blood flows from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure. Blood pressure is greatest in the ventricles and lowest in the atria. Contraction of the ventricles creates the blood pressure that propels the blood through the arteries.

White Blood Cells – Production, Types, Structure, Concentration And Functions

White blood cells, or leukocytes are so named because pus and the buffy coat are white. These spherical cells are the only formed elements with nuclei and other organelles. A healthy person’s WBC count is typically 4,500 to 10,000 per ul of blood. However, the number of

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