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Cardiovascular System

Maintenance of Blood Plasma Composition

The composition and volume of blood plasma are affected by diet, cellular metabolism, and urine production. The intake of food and liquids provides the body with water and a variety of nutrients, including minerals, that are absorbed into the blood. Cellular metabolism uses nutrients and produces waste

Systemic Arteries And The Arterial Pathway of Blood To Various Organs

The systemic veins receive deoxygenated blood from capillaries and return the blood to the heart. Ultimately, all systemic veins merge to form two major veins, the superior and inferior venae cavae, that empty into the right atrium of the heart. Veins Draining The Head And Neck As

Disorders of the Heart and Blood Vessels

These disorders are grouped according to whether they affect primarily the heart or the blood vessels. In some cases, the underlying cause of a heart ailment is a blood vessel disorder. Heart Disorders Arrhythmia, or dysrhythmia, refers to an abnormal heartbeat. It may be caused by a

Circulation Pathways- Systemic And Pulmonary Circuits.

The heart is a double pump that serves two distinct circulation pathways: the pulmonary and systemic circuits. Pulmonary Circuit The pulmonary circuit carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs, where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the blood and the air in the lungs. The right ventricle

Cardiovascular Adaptations – Fetal Cardiovascular Adaptations and Postnatal Cardiovascular Changes

Fetal circulation is quite different from adult circulation because the digestive tract, lungs, and kidneys are not functioning. Oxygen and nutrients are obtained from the maternal blood in the placenta, while carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes are removed via the maternal blood. The pattern of fetal

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