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8 08, 2018

Plasma – Importance of The Normal Components of Plasma

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T08:44:50+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|0 Comments

Plasma is the fluid portion of the blood and consists of over 90% water. Water is the liquid carrier of plasma solutes (dissolved substances) and formed elements, in addition to being the solvent of all living systems. Plasma contains a great variety of solutes, such as nutrients, enzymes, hormones, antibodies, waste products, electrolytes, and respiratory [...]

8 08, 2018

Vascular Segments

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:11:13+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|0 Comments

As blood exits the left ventricle, it passes progressively through the aorta, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, and vena cava before returning to the right atrium. These vascular segments have significant functional differences. Arteries And Arterioles An extensive network of arteries and arterioles branch off of the aorta and distribute the cardiac output throughout the [...]

8 08, 2018

Heart Sounds

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:15:45+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|0 Comments

The 2 sounds are produced by the heart- the first heart sound is produced by the closure of the atrioventricular (tricuspid and mitral) valves and the second heart sound is produced by the closure of semilunar (aortic and pulmonary) valves. These sounds are heard by the clinician by auscultationwith stethoscope. The first and second heart [...]

8 08, 2018

Hemostasis – The Sequence of Events That Occurs During Hemostasis.

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T08:46:43+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, General, Physiology|0 Comments

Whenever blood vessels are damaged, the loss of blood poses a considerable threat to homeostasis. Hemostasis is a positive-feedback mechanism initiated after vascular injury to stop or limit blood loss. There are three separate but interrelated processes involved in hemostasis: vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and coagulation. Notice that homeostasis and hemostasis are different words. [...]

8 08, 2018

Circulation in Specific Vascular Beds

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:13:19+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|0 Comments

Blood flow serves multiple functions. Matching of blood flow to metabolic needs is complex in organs that have variable metabolic rates, such as skeletal muscle. Local regulation of blood flow is well developed in tissues that have a low tolerance for ischemia, such as the brain and the heart. Some regional circulations serve functions other [...]

8 08, 2018

Skeleton of the Heart – Function and Importance

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:21:15+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|0 Comments

The Skeleton of the Heart consists of fibrous tissue and creates the central support of the heart. It is composed of fibrous rings that surround the atrioventricular, pulmonary, and aortic orifices. These rings provide circular form and rigidity to the atrioventricular orifices and roots of the aorta and pulmonary trunk. They also provide connection to [...]

8 08, 2018

Fibrinolysis and Anticoagulants

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T08:47:44+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|0 Comments

The ability to create clots to limit blood loss from sites of vascular injury is balanced by systems designed to limit clot formation and to dissolve existing clots. The blood contains natural anticoagulants that act continuously to inhibit clot formation. Fibrinolytic agents dissolve existing clots. In doing so, blood flow through the vascular system can [...]

8 08, 2018

Pulmonary Circulation

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:16:22+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology, Respiratory System|0 Comments

The lungs receive the entire output of the right ventricle. Consequently, pulmonary blood flow is equal to cardiac output, about 5 L/min. The normal transit time for blood through the pulmonary capillaries is about 0.75 seconds. Gas equilibration between the alveolar air and the pulmonary capillary takes about 0.25 seconds for O2 and about 0.05 [...]

8 08, 2018

Variations in the Coronary Arteries/ Coronary Dominance

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:32:04+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|0 Comments

The origin, course, and distribution of the posterior interventricular artery are variable. In right coronary dominance, the posterior interventricular artery is a branch of the right coronary artery. It's seen in 90% of the individuals. In left coronary dominance, the posterior interventricular artery originates from circumflex branch of the left coronary artery. It's seen in [...]

8 08, 2018

Human Blood Types – Importance And Blood Typing Antigens & Antibodies In Abo & Rh Blood Type.

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T08:48:52+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|0 Comments

Several different blood types occur in humans. The most familiar ones involve the ABO blood group (types A, B, AB, and O) and the Rh blood group (Rh+ and Rh-). Blood types are classified by the presence or absence of certain antigens, which are glycoproteins and glyco- lipids, located within the plasma membranes of the [...]