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Vasa Vasorum

By | 2018-07-10T07:28:02+00:00 February 9th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|

The Vasa vasorum is found in large arteries as well as veins like the aorta along with its branches. 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography has shown that there are three different types of Vasa vasorum in human arteries via various vascular beds: Vasa vasorum internae emerge directly from the main lumen of the artery and then branch [...]

The Systemic Circulation

By | 2018-07-10T07:45:03+00:00 January 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|

Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which: Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart via the aorta from the left ventricle towards the rest of the body. Brings back deoxygenated blood towards the heart. The systemic circuit, which contains about 84 percent of the total blood volume at any given movement, starts [...]

Pulmonary Circuit

By | 2018-07-10T07:45:48+00:00 January 8th, 2018|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|

The cardiovascular system is categorized into the pulmonary circuit as well as the systemic circuit. The blood among the heart and the lungs is transported by pulmonary circuit, which is made up of arteries and veins. The circuit starts at the right ventricle and terminates at the left atrium. The arteries of the systemic circuit [...]

Facial Bones – What Bones Form The Face?

By | 2018-07-11T05:27:15+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|

The paired bones of the face are the maxillae, palatine bones, zygomatic bones, lacrimal bones, nasal bones, and inferior nasal conchae. The single bones are the vomer and mandible. The maxillae (mak-sil'-e) form the upper jaw. Each maxilla is formed separately, but they are joined at the midline during embryonic development. The maxillae articulate with [...]

Maintenance of Blood Plasma Composition

By | 2018-07-11T06:07:26+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|

The composition and volume of blood plasma are affected by diet, cellular metabolism, and urine production. The intake of food and liquids provides the body with water and a variety of nutrients, including minerals, that are absorbed into the blood. Cellular metabolism uses nutrients and produces waste products, including nitrogenous wastes. Urine production retains essential [...]

Systemic Arteries And The Arterial Pathway of Blood To Various Organs

By | 2018-07-11T06:18:10+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|

The systemic veins receive deoxygenated blood from capillaries and return the blood to the heart. Ultimately, all systemic veins merge to form two major veins, the superior and inferior venae cavae, that empty into the right atrium of the heart. Veins Draining The Head And Neck As shown in figure 12.21, superficial areas of the [...]

Heart Sounds

By | 2018-07-11T06:18:58+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|

The 2 sounds are produced by the heart- the first heart sound is produced by the closure of the atrioventricular (tricuspid and mitral) valves and the second heart sound is produced by the closure of semilunar (aortic and pulmonary) valves. These sounds are heard by the clinician by auscultationwith stethoscope. The first and second heart [...]

Skeleton of the Heart – Function and Importance

By | 2018-07-11T06:19:28+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|

The Skeleton of the Heart consists of fibrous tissue and creates the central support of the heart. It is composed of fibrous rings that surround the atrioventricular, pulmonary, and aortic orifices. These rings provide circular form and rigidity to the atrioventricular orifices and roots of the aorta and pulmonary trunk. They also provide connection to [...]

Variations in the Coronary Arteries/ Coronary Dominance

By | 2018-07-11T06:45:01+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Cardiovascular System, Physiology|

The origin, course, and distribution of the posterior interventricular artery are variable. In right coronary dominance, the posterior interventricular artery is a branch of the right coronary artery. It's seen in 90% of the individuals. In left coronary dominance, the posterior interventricular artery originates from circumflex branch of the left coronary artery. It's seen in [...]