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Cardiovascular System

Cardiac Electrophysiology

Cardiac Electrophysiology is defined as the study of diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. Doctors use electrophysiology tests to understand the nature of abnormal heart. Cardiac tissue has distinctive electrical characteristics. Intercalated disks allow action potentials to pass to adjacent cells. Myocardial cells can

Cardiovascular Adaptations – Fetal Cardiovascular Adaptations and Postnatal Cardiovascular Changes

Fetal circulation is quite different from adult circulation because the digestive tract, lungs, and kidneys are not functioning. Oxygen and nutrients are obtained from the maternal blood in the placenta, while carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes are removed via the maternal blood. The pattern of fetal

Myocardial Physiology

Myocardial cells have distinctive anatomic and physiologic characteristics. Under a microscope, striations are visible owing to the arrangement of actin and myosin as in skeletal muscle. T tubules increase the contact area of the cell membrane and extracellular fluid space. At rest, cardiac muscle obtains 99% of

Heart Sounds

The 2 sounds are produced by the heart- the first heart sound is produced by the closure of the atrioventricular (tricuspid and mitral) valves and the second heart sound is produced by the closure of semilunar (aortic and pulmonary) valves. These sounds are heard by the clinician

Disorders of The Blood – RBC, WBC And Hemostasis

Blood disorders may be grouped as red blood cell disorders, white blood cell disorders, and disorders of hemostasis. Normal values for common blood tests are located on the inside back cover. Blood tests are valuable in diagnosing a variety of disorders. Note that many of the disorders

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