There are normally two (upper and lower) lateral sacral arteries on each side. These run downwards as well as medially above the sacral nerves. Their sections go into the sacral canal via anterior sacral foramina to supply its contents. Their endings arise on the dorsal element of the sacrum via the dorsal sacral foramina to provide the muscles and skin on the dorsum of sacrum.
The lateral sacral artery occurs by itself or together with the superior gluteal artery. It typically splits within a superior as well as an inferior branch.
The superior section is normally the larger. It creates anastomoses along with the median sacral artery via the aorta. Branches via the anastomoses upon the pelvic surface of the sacrum go into the pelvic sacral foramina, feed the sacral canal as well as arise via the dorsal sacral foramina to separate in a skin area that is prone to push sores.
The inferior branch goes across the piriformis muscle as well as the roots of the sacral plexus and comes down to the sympathetic trunk. It creates anastomoses with the median sacral artery and with vessels in the gluteal region.
It continues inferiorly, in close relation to the roots of the sacral plexus. It lies simply lateral to the anterior sacral foramina, and normally divides into superior and inferior branches, which supply 2 foramina each.
- The superior branch enters medially, frequently anastomoses with the middle sacral artery and gets in S1 and S2 foramina. It goes into and also supplies the sacral meninges and also leaves posteriorly to replenish erector spinae and the cutaneous area above the sacrum, and anastomoses with the superior gluteal artery.
- The inferior branch enters inferomedially over the piriformis muscle, and diminishes towards the coccyx, exactly where it anastomoses with the middle sacral artery. It travels through the S3 together with S4 foramina to supply spinal meninges and also leaves to supply muscle as well as overlapping skin posteriorly.
The lateral sacral artery might split into two branches. Replicate lateral sacral arteries might develop from the internal iliac artery. The lateral sacral artery and the superior gluteal artery might have a common origin.