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Perforating Veins (Perforators)

Perforating Veins are so named due to the fact that they perforate the deep fascia. The venous channels between the superficial and deep veins are conveyed by them. The perforators are classified into 2 types: indirect and direct. Indirect perforators: They attach the superficial veins with the

Fasciae – Pectoral Fascia and Clavipectoral Fascia

Fascia is a band or sheet of connective tissue, beneath the skin. Pectoral Fascia It’s the deep fascia covering the anterior aspect of the pectoralis major muscle. It’s thin and anchored firmly to the muscle by numerous fasciculi. Extent Superiorly, it’s connected to the clavicle. Inferiorly, it’s

Superficial Fascia

It is made up of thin layer of loose areolar tissue and includes a thin sheet of a muscle known as platysma. It also includes cutaneous nerves, superficial veins, superficial lymph nodes and lymph vessels along with platysma. The location of cutaneous nerves and veins is deep


Arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules and veins are the five major varieties of blood vessels. Arteries convey blood away from the heart to other organs. While they exit the heart, large, elastic arteries divide into medium-sized muscular arteries that spread out into the several zones of the body.


Veins are blood vessels that transport blood towards the heart. Almost all veins carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart; exceptions are the pulmonary and umbilical veins, both of which carry oxygenated blood to the heart. In comparison to veins, arteries carry blood away

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