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Integumentary system


The meninges consist of three membranes arranged in layers. From deepest to most superficial they are the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater. The pia mater is the very thin, deepest membrane. It tightly envelops both the brain and the spinal cord and penetrates into each

Function And Structure of Skin And Subcutaneous Tissue

The skin is connective tissue that consists of cells, fibers and an extracellular matrix. The epidermis is the thin outer layer of skin, the dermis is the thicker inner layer of skin. Beneath the dermis, lies a layer of loose connective tissue called subcutaneous tissue or the

Skin Color Determination And Skin’s Protection From Ultraviolet Radiation

Skin color results from the interaction of three different pigments: hemoglobin, carotene, and melanin. Hemoglobin (hemo-glo “-bin) is the red pigmented protein in red blood cells that is used to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. Carotenes (kair-o-tens) are a group of lipid-ioluble plant pigments

Epidermis And Accessory Structure Formed By The Epidermis And Their Functions

The epidermis is a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. An epithelium is avascular, meaning it lacks blood vessels. Since the epidermis is prone to injury, the lack of blood vessels prevents unnecessary found only in areas subjected to high levels of abrasion, such as the palms and soles.

Cells and Layers of the Epidermis

The epidermis is composed of five types of cells: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that divide and give rise to the keratinocytes described next. They are found only in the deepest layer of the epidermis, called the stratum basale. Keratinocytes are the great majority of epidermal cells.

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