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Hepatitis – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Viruses, Treatment and Prognosis

Hepatitis is a typically surprising, short term inflammation of the liver because of variety of causes, the most common being the hepatitis viruses a, b and c; c is the most serious.

About 1 in 1000 individuals in the United Kingdom take the virus for hepatitis at any one time, although not all of them will inevitably go on to develop the disorder. The state has various causes and has a sudden start. Most individuals with acute hepatitis recover within a month or two. Nevertheless, in some instances inflammation of the liver continues for many months or may even last for years (long-term hepatitis) and may progress to liver failure.

What Are The Causes?

Global, the most common cause of acute hepatitis is disease with any one of the several kinds of hepatitis viruses. Until the late 1980s, there were just two known hepatitis viruses, hepatitis A and B. Added hepatitis viruses have now been identified, including hepatitis C, D and E. Other hepatitis viruses are almost surely yet to be found. The known viruses can all cause acute hepatitis, and they have many characteristics in common, although the manner in which they’re transmitted and their long term effects may differ.

Diseases with some kinds of bacteria, other non-hepatitis viruses and some parasites may also bring about acute hepatitis. Moreover, the illness may result from non-infectious agents, such as some drugs and toxins, including alcohol.

Other Infectious Causes

Acute hepatitis might also be brought on by other viral infections, including cytomegalovirus and the Epstein-Barr virus (the cause of glandular fever). Some bacterial diseases, including Legionnaires’ disease, can cause hepatitis. Parasitic diseases which could additionally bring about acute hepatitis contain disease with plasmodium, the basis for malaria.

Non Infectious Causes

In developed nations, excessive alcohol consumption is one of the most common causes of acute hepatitis. The illness may also be brought on by other toxins, including those found in toxic fungi. Acute hepatitis may also be due to specific drugs, such as some anticonvulsants, the anaesthetic gas halothane and an overdose of paracetamol.

What Are The Symptoms?

Some individuals infected with a hepatitis virus have no symptoms, or symptoms that are so light they aren’t seen. In other instances, the illness may be life threatening. If hepatitis is because of viral infection, the time from illness* to appearance of symptoms can change from up to six weeks for hepatitis A to six months for hepatitis B. Some folks who don’t have any symptoms may become carriers of the virus. If symptoms do develop, they may initially contain:

  • tiredness and a feeling of ill health
  • inferior desire
  • nausea and vomiting
  • temperature
  • suffering in the upper right side of the abdomen.

Several days after the first symptoms grow, the whites of the eyes and the skin may take on a yellow tinge (jaundice). Frequently, the first symptoms improve once jaundice appears. At this time, the faeces may become lighter than normal, and extensive itching may show up. Acute hepatitis due to the hepatitis B virus may also cause joint pains.

Serious acute hepatitis may bring about liver failure, causing mental confusion, seizures and sometimes coma. Liver failure is comparatively common following an overdose with the painkiller paracetamol, but it’s less common with some kinds of hepatitis, like those due to the hepatitis A virus.

How Is It Diagnosed?

If your physician suspects which you have hepatitis, she or he may arrange for you to have blood tests to assess your liver function and to try to find potential causes of the hepatitis. Blood tests will likely be replicated in order to help track your healing. If the investigation is uncertain, you may also have an ultrasound scan and in some instances a liver biopsy, in which a little piece of liver is removed and examined under a microscope.

Hepatitis Viruses

Hepatitis A Virus

The hepatitis A virus is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in the West.

Frequently, the virus doesn’t create symptoms, or symptoms are so light the disease passes unrecognized. The hepatitis A virus can be found in the urine and faeces of infected individuals, and it can be transmitted to others in dirty food or water.

Hepatitis B Virus

It’s estimated that each year about one million individuals in Europe become infected with the hepatitis B virus. The virus is spread by contact with an infected man’s body fluids. By way of example, the virus can be spread by sexual intercourse or by sharing dirty needles used for taking drugs intravenously. In developing countries, the disease is most commonly transmitted from mother to infant at birth. Before blood banks regularly screened blood for the virus, blood transfusions used to be a oource of hepatitis D infection, and manv

People who have haemophilia contracted hepatitis. All blood used for transfusions is now screened for the hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis C Virus

About 3 percent of individuals globally are infected with the hepatitis C virus annually. The virus is most commonly transmitted by blood, frequently by sharing dirty needles used for taking drugs intravenously.

All blood used for transfusions in the United Kingdom is now screened for the hepatitis C virus. It’s also spread by sexual intercourse.

Hepatitis D And E Viruses

Disease with hepatitis D occurs only in those who already have hepatitis B disease. It’s spread by contact with contaminated body fluids. The hepatitis E virus is a rare source of hepatitis in the developed world. The virus is excreted in the faeces of infected individuals and is spread in much the same manner as the hepatitis A virus.

What Is The Treatment?

There’s absolutely no special treatment for most cases of acute hepatitis, and individuals are generally advised to rest.

  • Consult your physician before taking any medications, including painkillers, because there’s a risk of side effects.
  • If you’ve got viral hepatitis, you’ll need to take precautions to prevent the spread of the disorder, including practising safe sex.
  • You should avoid drinking alcohol during the sickness and for at least three months once you have recuperated. But if the cause was alcohol-associated, you are going to be proposed to give up drinking alcohol forever.

What Is The Prognosis?

  • Most individuals with acute hepatitis feel better after 4-6 weeks and recuperate after three months.
  • However, for some people with hepatitis C, Healing is followed by a string of relapses over several months.
  • About 3 out of 4 individuals with hepatitis fc, and 1 out of 20 with hepatitis B and D develop chronic hepatitis.
  • Individuals with acute hepatitis due to an illness apart from the hepatitis viruses generally recover fully after the disease clears up.
  • Healing from acute hepatitis due to excessive alcohol consumption, drugs or other toxins is dependent upon the extent of the liver damage. The materials causing the acute hepatitis must be avoided later on.
  • In the infrequent instances in which hepatitis progresses to liver failure, a liver transplant may be needed.

Can It Be Prevented?

  • Disease with hepatitis A and E may be prevented by good personal hygiene.
  • The risk of infection with hepatitis B, C and D can be reduced by practising safe sex and by not sharing needles or other items that may be contaminated with infected body fluids.
  • Immunizations to protect against hepatitis A are given to travellers to specific nations, and others at risk of getting the disease.
  • Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for high risk groups, including healthcare workers.
  • To prevent the transmission of hepatitis through blood transfusion, blood banks regularly screen all blood for the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses.
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