Cancer of the ovary is a malignant tumour that can grow in one or both ovaries, generally in women after the menopause but sometimes in younger girls.
Sadly ovarian cancer doesn’t normally cause any symptoms until it’s improved, by which time it may be extremely tough to treat effectively. Ovarian cancer is generally competitive and can propagate fairly early in the course of the disorder.
There are many theories about what causes ovarian cancer to grow. It’s more common in elderly women and in women that have not had any kids, and less common in girls who’ve used the oral contraceptive pill or HRT for several years and in those girls who had a late start to their intervals and an early menopause.
“Resting” the ovary by suppressing ovulation, for example during pregnancy or while on the birth control pill, may protect a woman against developing ovarian cancer. Genetic factors are significant in ovarian cancer: occasionally it runs in families. A triad of cancers – ovary, breast and colon – run through some cancer families where a gene is at work.
■ Stomach pain.
■ Swelling of the abdomen.
■ A hard lump in the abdomen.
■ If the tumour is big, pressure on the bladder can cause frequent urination.
■ Occasional breathlessness if the tumour presses upwards on the diaphragm.
Some families carry a gene called BRCA1 that raises the chance of both ovarian and breast cancer. Genetic evaluations for this gene are now accessible to help identify those women in danger of developing ovarian and breast cancer.
If you’ve got a powerful history of ovarian or breast cancer in your family, it’s vital that you tell your physician.
Treatment of ovarian cancer typically requires several matters.
■ Your surgeon will try to remove the entire tumour and any local spread. The extent of surgery depends upon the kind of tumour discovered.
■ Minimal operation includes the removal of both ovaries and the fallopian tubes along with the uterus.
■ If the disease has already spread beyond the reproductive organs, considerably more extensive operation may be needed. This mav call for operation to other organs, for example removing part of the bowel and bladder.
■ Drugs including platinum are commonlv used to treat ovarian cancer, but radiotherapy was discovered to have small effect.
■ Additional operation may well be performed to remove any returns.
The prognosis in the longer term depends upon the phase of the disorder and the kind of malignant cell within the ovary, but the amounts aren’t reassuring. If the cancer is confined to the ovary, 60-70 percent of girls can expect to live for five years; if the development has spread, the five-year survival rate is just 10-20 percent.