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Skeleton of the Foot

The skeleton of the foot from behind forward is composed of the following bones:

Interactive Anatomical Interface

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Fibula
Tibia
Talus
Calcaneus
Cuboid Bone
Cuneiform Bones
Intermediate Cuneiform
Navicular
Metatarsal
Medial Cuneiform
Proximal phalanx
Distal Phalanx
Middle Phalanx

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Fibula
Tibia
Talus
Calcaneus
Cuboid Bone
Cuneiform Bones
Intermediate Cuneiform

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Navicular
Metatarsal
Medial Cuneiform
Proximal phalanx
Distal Phalanx
Middle Phalanx
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Plantar Aponeurosis
Interphalangeal ( proximal ) ligaments
Interphalangeal ( distal ) ligaments
Interphalangeal ligament of hallux
plantar calcaneonavicular ligament
Inferior extensor retinaculum
Flexor Retinaculum
deep transverse metatarsal
Distal phalanx
Proximal phalanx
Metatarsal
Middle phalanx
Medial Cuneiform
Intermediate cuneiform
Cuboid
navicular
talus
Calcaneus
Tibia
Fibula
Lateral cuneiform

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Plantar Aponeurosis
Middle phalanx
Interphalangeal ligament of hallux
plantar calcaneonavicular ligament
Inferior extensor retinaculum
Flexor Retinaculum
deep transverse metatarsal
Distal phalanx
Proximal phalanx

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Metatarsal
Interphalangeal ( distal ) ligaments
Interphalangeal ( proximal ) ligaments
Medial Cuneiform
Intermediate cuneiform
CUboid
navicular
talus
Calcaneus
Tibia
Fibula
Lateral cuneiform

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Related:   Saphenous Vein

Tarsal Bones

All these are short bones which collectively create tarsus. These arearranged in 3 rows:

(a) Proximal row includes talus and calcaneus.

(b) Middle row is made of navicular.

(c) Distal row is composed of 3 cuneiforms (medial, intermediate, and lateral) and cuboid.

Skeleton of the Foot: Tarsal Bones

Skeleton of the Foot: Tarsal Bones

 

Identification of bones in the skeleton of the foot:

  • Calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest and most proximal bone.
  • Talus is the 2nd largest bone and is located above the calcaneus like a rider, therefore maximum bone in the skeleton of foot.
  • Navicular is boat-shaped and is located in front of the head of talus.
  • Cuboid is cubical in shape in front of the lateral part of calcaneum.
  • Cuneiforms are small wedge shaped bones and ordered from side to side in front of navicular.

Metatarsal Bones

All these are 5 tiny long bones. The 5 metatarsal bones collectively make up the metatarsus. They can be numbered from medial to lateral sides as first, second, third, fourth, and fifth.

Skeleton of the Foot: Metatarsal Bones

Skeleton of the Foot: Metatarsal Bones

 

Identification

First Metatarsal

  • It’s the shortest, thickest, and most powerful, and is accommodated for weight transmission.
  • Proximal surface of its base presents a kidney shaped articular surface.

Second Metatarsal

  • It’s the longest metatarsal bone.
  • Proximal surface of its base has a triangular concave articular surface.

Third Metatarsal

  • Proximal surface of its base has a flat triangular articular facet.
  • The lateral side of its base has 2 facets while the medial side has 1 facet.

Fourth Metatarsal

  • The proximal surface of its base has a quadrilateral facet, which articulates with the cuboid.
  • The lateral side of base has 1 facet while its medial side has 1 facet split into 2 parts- proximal and distal.
Related:   Eyeball (Bulbus Oculi)

Fifth Metatarsal

The lateral side of its base projects proximally and somewhat laterally to create a large tuberosity (styloid process).

Phalangeal Bones

The phalangeal bones are tiny long bones. They’re 14 in number in every foot- 2 for the great toe and 3 for every of the other 4 toes. The phalanges in the great toe are proximal and distal, and phalanges in other toes are proximal, middle, and distal.

Skeleton of the Foot: Phalangeal Bones

Skeleton of the Foot: Phalangeal Bones

 

  • The base of the proximal phalanx presents a concave facet which joint together with the head of metatarsal bone to create the metacarpophalangeal joint.
  • The distal end of the proximal phalanx presents a pulley like articular surface and articulates with the middlephalanx in the lateral 4 toes and with terminal phalanx of first toe. So, lateral 4 toes possess 2 interphalangeal (IP) joints, proximal and distal, and the great toe possesses only 1 IP joint.
  • Both, proximal and distal articular surfaces of the middle phalanx are pulley-shaped.
  • The distal phalanx of every toe bears a rough tuberosity on plantar aspect of its distal end.

Ossification

  1. Every phalanx ossifies from 2 centers: a primary center for the shaft and a secondary center for the base.
  2. The period of appearance of primary centers is as follows:
    (a) For proximal phalanges: 12th week of IUL (Intrauterine Life).
    (b) For middle phalanges: 15th week of IUL.
    (c) For distal phalanges: 9th week of IUL.
  3. The period of appearance of secondary centers is as follows:
    (a) For proximal phalanges: 2 years.
    (b) For middle phalanges: 4 years.
    (c) For distal phalanges: 8 years.
  4. The fusion of epiphysis (base) with diaphysis (shaft) takes place in about the 18th year.

     


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By | 2018-02-01T11:12:35+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Anatomy, Bones and Cartilages, Lower Limb|0 Comments