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Bones and Cartilages

Arches of the Foot

The human foot is often called a wonder of nature’s architecture. it is one of the greatest examples of structural adaptation towards change in environment and conditions. Human foot has undergone a lot of phenotype change due to external and internal changes of conditions The foot performs

Navicular bone

The intermediate tarsal bone on the medial aspect of the foot is the navicular (boat formed). This bone articulates behind with the talus and links in front as well as on the lateral aspect with the distal set of tarsal bones. One distinguishing characteristic of the navicular


The talus is the second biggest bone of the foot located on the upper side of the anterior two-third of the calcaneus. It takes part in the creation of three joints – Ankle (talocrural) Talocalcaneal (subtalar) Talocalcaneonavicular (pretalar). It creates the connecting link in between the bones

Lateral Cuneiform

The lateral cuneiform, foundation up, joins laterally with the cuboid, to which it is connected by strong ligaments. Joining with the base of the second metatarsal, it protuberates more distally compared to the intermediate cuneiform. The pan of inception of flexor halucis brevis is created by proximal


The Femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body, present in the thigh (Latin femur = thigh). It’s around 18 inches (45 long), i.e., about quarter of the height of the individual. At the upper end it articulates with the hip bone to create the

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