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Bones and Cartilages


The talus is the second biggest bone of the foot located on the upper side of the anterior two-third of the calcaneus. It takes part in the creation of three joints – Ankle (talocrural) Talocalcaneal (subtalar) Talocalcaneonavicular (pretalar). It creates the connecting link in between the bones


The Calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone. It forms the prominence of the heel. Its long axis is directed forwards, upwards and laterally. It is roughly cuboidal and has six surfaces. Side Determination The anterior surface is small and bears a concavoconvex articular facet for the cuboid.

Navicular Bone

The Navicular Bone is boat-shaped. It is situated on the medial side of the foot, in front of the head of the talus, and behind the three cuneiform bones. Side Determination The anterior surface is convex, is divided into three facets for the three cuneiform bones. The

Cuneiform Bones

Common Features There are three cuneiform bones, medial, intermediate and lateral. The medial cuneiform is the largest and the intermediate cuneiform, the smallest. As their name suggests, these are wedge-shaped bones. In the medial cuneiform, the edge of the wedge forms the dorsal surface. In the intermediate


There are 14 Phalanges in each foot; 2 for the great toe and 3 for each of the other toes. As compared to the phalanges of the hand, these are much smaller in size, and the shafts particularly of the first row are compressed from side to

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