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Bones and Cartilages

Arches of the Foot

The human foot is often called a wonder of nature’s architecture. it is one of the greatest examples of structural adaptation towards change in environment and conditions. Human foot has undergone a lot of phenotype change due to external and internal changes of conditions The foot performs

The Fourth Metatarsal

The fourth metatarsal bone has almost the very same structure as the third, though it is a little smaller than third. Its body, which is prismatic and also triangular, is curved inwards rather more extremely compared to that of the preceding bone. Surfaces Its upper surface is


The talus is the second biggest bone of the foot located on the upper side of the anterior two-third of the calcaneus. It takes part in the creation of three joints – Ankle (talocrural) Talocalcaneal (subtalar) Talocalcaneonavicular (pretalar). It creates the connecting link in between the bones


The Calcaneus is the largest tarsal bone. It forms the prominence of the heel. Its long axis is directed forwards, upwards and laterally. It is roughly cuboidal and has six surfaces. Side Determination The anterior surface is small and bears a concavoconvex articular facet for the cuboid.

Navicular Bone

The Navicular Bone is boat-shaped. It is situated on the medial side of the foot, in front of the head of the talus, and behind the three cuneiform bones. Side Determination The anterior surface is convex, is divided into three facets for the three cuneiform bones. The

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