Light from a laser beam can cut or destroy tissue or fix damaged tissue by fusing ripped edges together. This enables lasers to be used in place of stitches, scissors and scalpels in numerous surgical procedures. Little sections of tissue can be treated without causing damage to the surrounding tissues, since laser beams can be focused exactly.

Laser treatment is popular in gynaecological processes. A laser beam can be directed into the body through an endoscope to remove scar tissue inside the fallopian tubes, which might be a cause of infertility. Lasers are also used to destroy abnormal cells and to remove cysts that form in the pelvic region as a result of endometriosis. Likewise, little tumours or precancerous cells in other body regions that were internal, such as the digestive tract or inside the larynx, can be ruined by laser beams.

The technique may also be used to open arteries which were narrowed by fatty deposits. In ophthalmic surgery, laser beams can be used to seal little rips in the retina, the light sensitive layer at the rear of the eye.

Laser treatment is frequently used on the face, particularly on the skin, for reducing scar tissue and birthmarks, non-cancerous moles, tattoos or wrinkles. In many instances scarring is minimal, and the look of the skin is considerably enhanced although the results are determined by the extent of the issue. Outside laser treatment can also be used to remove warts on the skin and genital warts and to treat ailments for example spider veins.

Most types of laser treatment are done under either general or local anaesthesia, determined by the region to be treated and the kind of operation. Yet, for minor skin conditions, little discomfort is caused by laser treatment and may be performed without anaesthesia. There may be some swelling, blistering and redness, which generally disappear within a week. Substantial areas of skin may need to be treated over several sessions.