The middle colic artery mostly supplies the transverse colon and is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery. It emerges just below the pancreas. Middle colic artery travels inferiorly and anteriorly and also splits into left and right sections between the layers of the transverse mesocolon. The left anastomoses with the left colic artery, a branch of the inferior mesenteric artery, and the right branch anastomoses with the right colic artery. This arrangement of anastomoses is called the marginal artery of the colon
Ischemic colitis may arise as a result of injury and inflammation of the large intestine caused by inadequate blood supply and is a fatal condition. Along with the middle colic artery a problem with any of the arteries supplying the colon, can lead to this condition.