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Synonyms: Ren: kidney (in Latin); Nephros: kidney (in Greek). Kidneys are the two reddish-brown organs inside the abdomen, situated on the posterior abdominal wall, resembling beans. The waste products of protein metabolism are removed by the kidneys and are therefore, these are known as the major excretory

Suprarenal (Adrenal) Glands

The Suprarenal Glands are a significant pair of endocrine glands which are enclosed in exactly the same fascial sheath as that of kidneys (renal fascia). These are situated on the upper poles of the kidneys. Each suprarenal gland is composed of 2 parts: (a) a comparatively thick outer


The Stomach is the part of the alimentary canal between the esophagus and the duodenum. It is the widest and most distensible part. Synonyms: Gaster (in Greek); venter (in Latin).   Functions The key functions of stomach are: Creates a reservoir of food. Blends food with gastric


Ovaries are those female organs which are the homologous of testes in the male. These can also be termed as female gonads. Their work is to generate female gametes termed as oocytes (mature ova). The ovaries are shaped like an almond and are grayish pink in color.


Synonym: Splen (in Greek); Lien (in Latin). Spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body (strictly speaking a hemolymphoid organ). The chief functions of the spleen are: To filter blood by removing worn out RBCs and microbial agents from the circulation. To fabricate RBCs in fetal

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