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The roof of the mouth is called Palate (L. palate = roof of the mouth). The partition between the nasal and oral cavities is created by it. The palate includes 2 parts, Hard palate, which creates the anterior 4-fifth of the palate and Soft palate, which creates


The brainstem is the stalklike portion of the brain that joins higher brain centers to the spinal cord. It contains several nuclei that are surrounded by white matter. Ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) axons between higher brain centers and the spinal cord pass through the brainstem. The


The larynx is altered for generating voice and is the upper enlarged part of the lower respiratory tract, therefore it’s also named voice box/organ of phonation. It functions as a sphincter in the inlet of lower respiratory tract and to safeguard the trachea and the bronchial tree

Medulla Oblongata

Extending from the Foramen Magnum to the upper border of the pons, the Medulla Oblongata is the direct upward continuation of the spinal cord, where It creates the lowest part of the Brainstem and is located nearly vertically in the anterior part of the posterior cranial fossa


The nose is the uppermost part of the respiratory tract and includes the peripheral organ of smell. The Greek for nose is rhinos. So the study of the nose and its diseases is called rhinology. It is composed of the external nose and the nasal cavity. Functions

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