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Pharyngotympanic Tube

(SYN. EUSTACHIAN TUBE/AUDITORY TUBE). It attaches the nasopharynx together with the tympanic cavity and is a mucous-lined osseocartilaginous station. On each side of the tympanic membrane for its appropriate shaking, it keeps the equilibrium of air pressure. From its tympanic end in an adult, it’s around 36


It includes the nuclei of the 3rd (oculomotor), 4th (trochlear) and 5th (trigeminal) cranial nerves. The midbrain is the smallest section of the brainstem and is situated just above the pons. It is traversed by the cerebral aqueduct. The part dorsal to the aqueduct is termed the


The roof of the mouth is called Palate (L. palate = roof of the mouth). The partition between the nasal and oral cavities is created by it. The palate includes 2 parts, Hard palate, which creates the anterior 4-fifth of the palate and Soft palate, which creates


The brainstem is the stalklike portion of the brain that joins higher brain centers to the spinal cord. It contains several nuclei that are surrounded by white matter. Ascending (sensory) and descending (motor) axons between higher brain centers and the spinal cord pass through the brainstem. The


The larynx is altered for generating voice and is the upper enlarged part of the lower respiratory tract, therefore it’s also named voice box/organ of phonation. It functions as a sphincter in the inlet of lower respiratory tract and to safeguard the trachea and the bronchial tree

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