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Maxilla

There are totally 2 maxillae, 1 on every side of midline. The 2 together create the upper jaw. They have uneven pneumatic bone structure.

Interactive Anatomical Interface

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Frontal
parietal
Temporal
Sphenoid
Zygomatic
maxilla
Nasal
Lateral cartilage
greater alar cartilage
Mandbile
thyrohyoid membrane
thyroid cartilage
cricoid cartilage
cricotracheal ligament
ANterior longitudinal ligament
teeth
cervical vertabrae
first rib
second rib

Highlight
Frontal
parietal
Temporal
Sphenoid
Zygomatic
maxilla
Nasal
Lateral cartilage
greater alar cartilage
Mandbile

Highlight
thyrohyoid membrane
thyroid cartilage
cricoid cartilage
cricotracheal ligament
ANterior longitudinal ligament
teeth
cervical vertabrae
first rib
second rib
Highlight
frontal
Parietal
Sphenoid
temporal
Zygomatic
Maxilla
stylomandibular ligament
Lateral cartilage
posterior atlantoaxial ligament
lateral ligament
greater alar cartilage
teeth
mandible
hyoid
occipital bone
first rib
posterior atlanto-occipital memebrane
thyrohyoid membrane
thyroid cartilage
ricothyroid membrane and ligament
cricoid cartilage
cricotracheal ligament
t1 vertebra
stylohyoid ligament
joint capsule
Anterior longitudinal ligamnent
nuchal ligament
Cervical Vertebra
lacrimal

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frontal
Parietal
Sphenoid
temporal
Zygomatic
Maxilla
Lateral cartilage
greater alar cartilage
mandible
hyoid
thyrohyoid membrane
thyroid cartilage
ricothyroid membrane and ligament
cricoid cartilage
lateral ligament
cricotracheal ligament

Highlight
stylohyoid ligament
Anterior longitudinal ligamnent
nuchal ligament
Cervical Vertebra
first rib
t1 vertebra
lacrimal
occipital bone
teeth
posterior atlanto-occipital memebrane
posterior atlantoaxial ligament
joint capsule
stylomandibular ligament
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nasal
temporal bone
occipital bone
Internal auditory meatus
Stylomastoid foramen
Temporal
sphenoid
ethmoid
zygomatic bone
zygomatic bone
lacrimal bone
perpendicular plate
lacrimal bone
nasal cartilage
vomer
Nasal concha
Mandible
tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint
foramen magnum
tectorial membrane
c1 atlas
crista galli
ethmoidal sinuses
cribriform plate
foramen rotundum
optic foramen
superior orbital fissure
palatine
nuchal ligament
c01 atlas
posterior atlantoaxial ligament
c2 axis
c03 vertebrae
c04 vertebrae
C5 vertebrae

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nasal
temporal bone
occipital bone
Stylomastoid foramen
Temporal
sphenoid
ethmoid
zygomatic bone
zygomatic bone
lacrimal bone
perpendicular plate
posterior atlantoaxial ligament
nasal cartilage
vomer
Nasal concha
palatine
tectorial membrane of atlanto-axial joint

Highlight
foramen magnum
tectorial membrane
c1 atlas
crista galli
lacrimal bone
Mandible
ethmoidal sinuses
cribriform plate
foramen rotundum
Internal auditory meatus
optic foramen
superior orbital fissure
nuchal ligament
c01 atlas
c2 axis
c03 vertebrae
c04 vertebrae
C5 vertebrae
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Parts of the Maxilla

It is the second largest bone of the face. It consists of 5 parts: a body and 4 processes.

Body of the Maxilla

Maxilla is pyramidal in shape and has a large cavity inside called maxillary air sinus. The body presents the subsequent 4 surfaces:

  • Nasal (medial) surface
  • Orbital (superior) surface
  • Temple (posterior) surface
  • Anterior (facial) surface

Nasal surface (base)

It makes the lateral wall of the nasal cavity and represents the base of the body of maxilla. It presents a large opening, the maxillary hiatus, which leads into maxillary sinus, a large air space inside the body of the maxilla. The maxillary hiatus is the most notable characteristic of the nasal surface. In the articulated skull the maxillary hiatus is reduced in size by the 4 bones, viz. ethmoid, lacrimal, inferior nasal concha and palatine. In front of the hiatus is the nasolacrimal groove. It’s converted into nasolacrimal canal by lacrimal bone and inferior nasal concha. An oblique ridge present in front of the nasolacrimal groove is termed conchal crest. It articulates with the infe-rior nasal concha. A vertical groove, running obliquely in the posterior part of nasal surface is converted into greater palatine canal by a perpendicular plate of the palatine bone.

Orbital surface

It creates the major part of the floor of the orbital cavity. It presents infraorbital groove and canal for infraorbital nerve and vessels.

Temple surface

It creates the anterior boundary of infratemporal fossa. It’s divided from the anterior surface by zygomatic process and bony ridge (jugular crest) that ascends to it from first molar socket. It presents few tiny foramina for posterior superior alveolar nerve and vessels.

Anterior surface

It creates the part of norma frontalis. About 1 cm below the infraorbital margin, the anterior surface presents the infraorbital foramen which carries infraorbital nerve and vessels. Just above the alveolar process the anterior surface gifts from medial to lateral: incisive fossa, canine eminence and canine fossa. The canine eminence is caused by the root of canine tooth.

Processes of the Maxilla

Maxilla possesses the following 4 processes:

  • Frontal process
  • Zygomatic process
  • Palatine process
  • Alveolar process

Frontal process

It projects upwards and articulates with the frontal bone. The thick frontal process is located in the line of buttress for dispersion of force of impact from teeth to the base of the skull. Its lateral surface is split into anterior and posterior parts by a vertical ridge referred to as anterior lacrimal crest. The posterior part is grooved and creates a part of lacrimal fossa. The medial surface of the frontal process is marked by a horizontal ridge named ethmoidal crest. It slopes downwards and forwards and articulates with the middle nasal concha. An area below the ethmoidal crest creates the atrium of the middle meatus.

Zygomatic process

It stretches laterally to joint with the zygomatic bone.

Palatine process

It goes horizontally in the direction of the medial side and creates the greater part of the hard palate.

Alveolar process

It goes downwards and bears the upper teeth. It’s arched, being wider behind, to create the alveolar arch. The 2 maxillae are combined in the anteromedian planeat the intermaxillary suture. The portion of the maxillae that carry the incisor teeth is occasionally called premaxilla.

Clinical Significance

Fractures of Maxilla

Unilateral fracture includes the alveolar process of the maxilla. Bilateral fractures are classified into following 3 types: A) Le Fort I; B) Le Fort II; C) Le Fort III

Le Fort I: In this a horizontal fracture runs along the floor of the nose above and parallel to the palates and below the zygomatic bone.

Le Fort II: In this, a pyramidal-shaped fracture line goes through the root of the nose, floor of orbits and after that runs medial to and below the zygomatic bones in the direction of the alveolar margin.

Le Fort III (craniofacial dysfunction): In this, the fracture line runs via the root of the nose, superior orbital fissures and lateral walls of the orbits above the zygomatic bones. There’s complete separation of cranial skeleton from facial skeleton.


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By | 2018-02-01T09:39:43+00:00 July 24th, 2017|Anatomy, Bones and Cartilages, Head and Neck|0 Comments