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Bones and Cartilages

Hyoid Bone

Not really a part of the skull, this U-shaped bone lies in the very front of the neck between the mandible and the larynx in the level of the third cervical vertebra. It’s exceptional in the meaning that, it’s suspended from styloid processes of temporal bones by


The clivus is a bony part of the cranium found at the skull base and is a shallow recession at the back of the dorsum sellae that inclines obliquely backwards. It creates a gradual sloping process at its junction with the sphenoid bone at the forward most

Cervical Vertebrae

There are 7 cervical vertebrae, numbered 1 to 7 from above to downwards. As they need to hold less weight, they may be small in size when compared with thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. The presence of foramen in their own transverse processes termed foramen transversarium – the

Posterior Nasal Spine

Posterior nasal spine is created where the two horizontal plates combine at the midline as well as protrudes back from the edge of the hard palate. The posterior margin of the horizontal plates along with the posterior nasal spine is related to connection of the soft palate.

Osteology of the Head and Neck

The study of osteology (bony skeleton) of head and neck creates the foundation to understand this region. The skeleton of head and neck includes skull, cervical vertebrae and hyoid bone. The pupils should study the skull and cervical vertebrae extensively linking their principal features to the bony

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