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Bones and Cartilages

Cervical Vertebrae

There are 7 cervical vertebrae, numbered 1 to 7 from above to downwards. As they need to hold less weight, they may be small in size when compared with thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. The presence of foramen in their own transverse processes termed foramen transversarium – the

Posterior Nasal Spine

Posterior nasal spine is created where the two horizontal plates combine at the midline as well as protrudes back from the edge of the hard palate. The posterior margin of the horizontal plates along with the posterior nasal spine is related to connection of the soft palate.

Osteology of the Head and Neck

The study of osteology (bony skeleton) of head and neck creates the foundation to understand this region. The skeleton of head and neck includes skull, cervical vertebrae and hyoid bone. The pupils should study the skull and cervical vertebrae extensively linking their principal features to the bony


The area between the superior temporal line and zygomatic arch, on the side of the skull is called temple. The fact that with age (i.e., time) greying of hair happen first in this area (tempus = time) was the reason for naming it the temple. Layers of

Axis C2

The second cervical vertebra, commonly known as C2 is also called the axis. It is a peculiar cervical vertebra which possesses distinctive attributes and significant relations that facilitates its detection. The odontoid process is its most protuberant aspect, which is the body of the atlas or C1

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