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Surface Markings of the Pleura

To carry out several medical and surgical processes, the wisdom of reflexion of parietal pleura on the surface of chest wall is of great importance to play the role for these processes. To mention the expression of parietal pleura on the surface, these lines should be observed

Sinuses of Pericardium

The Sinuses of Pericardium lie between the parietal and visceral layers of serous pericardium and are 2 in number: Transverse sinus. Oblique sinus. They’re created because of the reflection of visceral layer of serous pericardium around great vessels of the heart. The visceral pericardium (epicardium) at the

Chambers of the Heart – Right Atrium and Ventricle and Left Atrium and Ventricle

The heart is composed of 4 chambers, viz. A. Right atrium. B. Right ventricle. C. Left atrium. D. Left ventricle. The 2 atrial chambers are divided from every other by a vertical septum the interatrial septum and the 2 ventricular chambers are divided from every other by

Valves of the Heart – Atrioventricular and Semilunar Valves

The Valves of the Heart are present in 2 pairs: (a) a pair of atrioventricular valves, and (b) a pair of semilunar valves. The valves prevent regurgitation of the blood. Atrioventricular Valves The left and right atria communicate with the left and right ventricles via left and

Fourth Ventricle

The 4th ventricle is a tent-like cavity of the hindbrain lined with ependyma and filled up with cerebrospinal fluid (csf), it’s situated in the posterior cranial fossa in front of the cerebellum and behind the pons and the upper part of medulla oblongata. The cavity of the

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