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Coverings of the Thoracic wall

The Thoracic wall is covered by: From superficial to deep, Skin. Superficial fascia. Deep fascia. Muscles. Skin Anterior aspect and rear aspect of the skin covering the thoracic wall are thin and thick respectively. Age, gender and race are the factors to depend upon the distribution of

5th Intercostal Spaces

5th intercostal space starts from inferior portion of 5th rib and ends at superior portion of 6th rib. The intercostal spaces are the spaces amongst the two bordering ribs and their costal cartilages. On each side 11 intercostal spaces are present. Contents Each space contains the following

Pleural Cavities

Every lung is invested by and enclosed in a serous sac which includes 2 constant serous membranes the visceral pleura and parietal pleura. The visceral pleura invests all the surfaces of the lung creating its gleaming outer surface, on the other hand the parietal pleura lines the

Axillary Lines

Whenever there is abduction of the arm from the body by 90 degrees, by the anterior axillary fold, through the middle of the axilla, as well as from the posterior axillary fold imaginary vertical lines can be drawn. These lines are respectively, referred to as the anterior

Surface Markings of the Pleura

To carry out several medical and surgical processes, the wisdom of reflexion of parietal pleura on the surface of chest wall is of great importance to play the role for these processes. To mention the expression of parietal pleura on the surface, these lines should be observed

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