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8 08, 2018

Third Ventricle

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:44:30+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

The 3rd ventricle is the cavity of diencephalon. It's a midline slit-like cavity situated between 2 thalami and part of hypothalamus. It goes from the lamina terminalis anteriorly to the superior end of the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain posteriorly. The cavity of the 3rd ventricle is lined by ciliated columnar epithelium, the ependyma and [...]

8 08, 2018

Superior Thoracic Aperture (Thoracic Inlet)

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:29:42+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

Superior Thoracic Aperture or Thoracic Inlet is the inlet through which the thoracic cavity interacts with the root of the neck. Clinicians call the superior thoracic aperture as thoracic outlet clinicians because significant arteries and T1 spinal nerves come from thorax via this aperture and goes into the neck and upper limbs. Superior Thoracic [...]

8 08, 2018

2nd Intercostal Space

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:48:04+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

2nd intercostal space starts from inferior portion of 2nd rib and ends at superior portion of 3rd rib. The intercostal spaces are the spaces amongst the two bordering ribs and their costal cartilages. On each side 11 intercostal spaces are present. 2nd Intercostal Space Contents Each space contains the following structures: Intercostal muscles: [...]

8 08, 2018

Inferior Thoracic Aperture (Thoracic Outlet)

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:31:30+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

The Inferior Thoracic Aperture is broad and the upper part of the abdominal cavity is encompassed by the inferior thoracic aperture. The thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity is divided by the large musculoaponeurotic diaphragm connected to the margins of thoracic outlet.   Borders Anteriorly: Xiphisternal joint. Posteriorly: Body of 12th thoracic vertebra. Laterally: Costal [...]

8 08, 2018

3rd Intercostal Spaces

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:51:07+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

3rd intercostal space starts from inferior portion of 3rd rib and ends at superior portion of 4th rib. The intercostal spaces are the spaces amongst the two bordering ribs and their costal cartilages. On each side 11 intercostal spaces are present. Contents Each space contains the following structures: Intercostal muscles External intercostal Internal intercostal Transversus [...]

8 08, 2018

Surface Landmarks of the Thoracic wall

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:46:43+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

Bony Landmarks The bony landmarks of the thoracic wall are as follows: 1. Suprasternal notch (jugular notch): Just above the superior border of the manubrium sterni between the proximal medial ends of both clavicles is exactly where the jugular notch is found. At the level of lower border of the body of T2 vertebra is where [...]

8 08, 2018

4th Intercostal Space

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:53:32+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

4th intercostal space starts from inferior portion of 4th rib and ends at superior portion of 5th rib. The intercostal spaces are the spaces amongst the two bordering ribs and their costal cartilages. On each side 11 intercostal spaces are present. Intercostal Space Contents Each space contains the following structures: Intercostal muscles External [...]

8 08, 2018

Coverings of the Thoracic wall

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:47:48+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

The Thoracic wall is covered by: From superficial to deep, Skin. Superficial fascia. Deep fascia. Muscles. Skin Anterior aspect and rear aspect of the skin covering the thoracic wall are thin and thick respectively. Age, gender and race are the factors to depend upon the distribution of hair which is variable. Cutaneous nerves: [...]

8 08, 2018

5th Intercostal Spaces

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T09:56:16+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

5th intercostal space starts from inferior portion of 5th rib and ends at superior portion of 6th rib. The intercostal spaces are the spaces amongst the two bordering ribs and their costal cartilages. On each side 11 intercostal spaces are present. Intercostal Spaces Contents Each space contains the following structures: Intercostal muscles: External [...]

8 08, 2018

Pleural Cavities

By Dr. Joseph H Volker | 2018-08-30T10:01:43+00:00 August 8th, 2018|Anatomy, Areas, Thorax|0 Comments

Every lung is invested by and enclosed in a serous sac which includes 2 constant serous membranes the visceral pleura and parietal pleura. The visceral pleura invests all the surfaces of the lung creating its gleaming outer surface, on the other hand the parietal pleura lines the pulmonary cavity (i.e., thoracic wall and mediastinum). The [...]